General Health Panel
General Health Screen Panel: Comprehensive Metabolic Panel, Complete Blood Count and Lipid PanelThe General Health Screen is the panel of tests used by most doctors to assess
your health. It checks your immune system, heart and cardiovascular
health, liver, kidney and sugar metabolism. It also checks minerals,
enzymes, and blood gases that make sure our bodies are working
Comprehensive Metabolic Panel with Complete Blood Count
(CBC) and Lipid Panel
Includes all of the following tests:
Comprehensive Metabolic Panel: Alanine
aminotransferase (ALT/SGPT); albumin:globulin (A:G) ratio;
albumin; alkaline phosphatase; aspartate aminotransferase (AST/SGOT);
bilirubin, total; BUN; BUN:creatinine ratio; calcium; carbon dioxide,
total; chloride; creatinine; globulin, total; glucose; potassium;
protein, total; sodium.
Lipid Panel Includes: Cholesterol, total; high-density lipoprotein
(HDL) cholesterol; low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol;
triglycerides; very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol.
Complete Blood Count (CBC) With Differential Includes: Hematocrit;
hemoglobin; mean corpuscular volume (MCV); mean corpuscular hemoglobin
(MCH); mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC); red cell
distribution width (RDW); percentage and absolute differential counts;
platelet count; red cell count; white blood cell count (WBC)
Complete Blood Count (CBC)
White Blood Cells (WBC) represent the body’s immune system and the
various kinds of white cells have specialized functions.
Lymphocytes are mainly for defense against virus and cancer cells,
while Polys are primarily defending against bacteria. Monocytes
are the second line of defense and finish the job started by the
lymphocytes and polys. They are seen in higher numbers when there is
infection or inflammation. Basophils primarily function as clean
up for allergy reactions and Eosinophils perform a service when toxins,
allergens and parasites attack.
Red Blood Cells (RBC) are the oxygen carrying cells using Hemoglobin to
hold the oxygen until it is exchanged for carbon dioxide.
Hematocrit is a measure of the volume of whole blood taken up by the
red blood cells and expressed as a percent. MCV (Mean corpuscular
volume), MHC (Mean corpuscular hemoglobin), MCHC (Mean corpuscular
hemoglobin concentration) and RDW (Red cell distribution width) all
reflect the size, shape and contents of red cells.
Platelets are special cells in the blood that help form clots when
repair is necessary.
Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
Total Protein is a measure of available building blocks for many
compounds in the body. Protein are used to form enzymes,
hormones, antibodies and many structural components like muscle
tissue. The main proteins in the blood are albumin and
globulin. Increases are seen in liver disorders, alcoholism, and
chronic infections and inflammation. Decreases are noted in
malabsorption, colitis, and poor nutrition.
Albumin is a primary protein in the blood and is made from amino acids
in the liver and is also available from the diet, especially from
eggs. It helps with the immune system, maintains proper fluid
balance in the tissues and plays a role in nutrient transport and waste
removal. Increases are seen in kidney disorders and
dehydration. Decreases are noted in decreased immune function and
Globulin is the other primary protein and has important functions in
immune response. Among its other jobs are carrying hormones and
lipids. Compounds known as imunoglobulins, like IgA, IgG and IgE
are highly important for various immune issues like allergies and
infections in the mucus linings of the body. Increases are seen
in chronic infection and during recovery from acute infections, as well
as in Rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and in some cases when stomach acids
are deficient. Decreases are primarily found in patients with
compromised immunity and in cases of poor nutrition or malabsorption.
BUN - Blood Urea Nitrogen is an end product of protein breakdown.
It’s produced mainly in the liver and is eliminated by the
kidneys. Increases can be caused by excessive protein
consumption, inadequate water consumption and kidney disorders.
Decreases are related to poor diet, liver problems, excessive water
consumption and malabsorption.
Uric Acid is an end product of a protein digestion, mainly a type of
protein called purine. Some foods that are high in purine
are organ meats, spinach, mushrooms, yeast and asparagus. It also
comes from the breakdown of purine proteins in the nucleus of cells.
Increases occur when the kidneys can’t eliminate properly or with gouty
arthritis, alcoholism and high protein diets. Decreases are
primarily associated with low protein diet or malabsorption.
Glucose is sugar that is used by the cells to provide energy. It
is the only type of fuel that can be used by the brain and nervous
system, whereas other tissues can also burn fats for energy.
Glucose comes from the digestion of carbohydrates and may also be
stored as glycogen for later use. It is primarily kept in balance
by 2 hormones made in the pancreas – insulin and glucagon, although the
liver, adrenal and thyroid glands are also involved.
Increased values are related to diabetes, stress, Syndrome X and
diet. Decreased values can reflect hypoglycemia and result
from overproduction of insulin, alcoholism and liver disorders.
SGOT (also called AST) is an enzyme found mainly in the liver, heart,
muscle and gonads. It functions in conversion of cholesterol to
hormones and in the synthesis of several acids formed from the
breakdown of proteins and fats. Increases are seen in congestive
heart disease, heart attack, liver disease and alcoholism.
Decreases are seen in gonadal dysfunction and vitamin B-6 deficiency.
SGPT (also called ALT) is an enzyme found primarily in the liver where
it is produced when fatty membranes release stored food
substances. It is released when cells die and is used to measure
liver damage and other cellular damage. Increases are seen in
liver disorders, alcoholism, vitamin A deficiency and heart
attack. Decreases are seen in congested liver with poor release
of stored nutrients.
GGT is another enzyme found primarily in the liver that is responsible
for transporting amino acids and proteins into cells. Increases
are seen in obstruction of the bile duct, liver damage and alcohol use,
especially chronic. Decreases are seen when the liver is
congested and in hypothyroid conditions.
Calcium is a principle component of the bones and teeth with 99% of the
body’s calcium found in these structures. The other 1% is very
important to processes like blood clotting, nerve and muscle function,
and various enzyme activities. Increases are seen in disorders
involving the parathyroid and thyroid glands, excess intake of vitamin
D, and in conditions related to much acid in the body. Decreases
are seen in parathyroid dysfunction, vitamin D deficiency, magnesium
deficiency and numerous other conditions.
Potassium is an electrolyte related to fluid balance and is used mainly
inside the body’s cells. It is necessary for proper function of
the heart and muscles. Increases are seen with excessive
destruction of cells, underactive adrenal glands and kidney
disease. Decreases are mainly seen in diarrhea, diuretic use,
nutritional deficiency and overactive adrenal glands.
Sodium is also an electrolyte. A low level of blood sodium means you
have hyponatremia, which is usually due to too much sodium loss, too
much water intake or retention, or to fluid accumulation in the body
(edema). Low sodium may be due to dehydration or a disease process.
Bilirubin (Total Bilirubin) comes from the normal breakdown of red
blood cells. This breakdown is done by the spleen, which produces
indirect bilirubin, and the liver, which produces direct
bilirubin. The combination of these two forms is called total
bilirubin. Increases are seen in liver and spleen dysfunction.
Decreases are found in iron deficiency anemia and also a type of spleen
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is actually the total of bicarbonate and carbon
dioxide. These two substances are in a dynamic equilibrium and
help maintain the balance of acid and base in the body. The
test also reflects the ability of the lungs to exchange oxygen for the
carbon dioxide gas. Increases indicate more alkaline blood condition
and in the extreme, metabolic alkalosis. Decreases show more
acidity in the blood and in the extreme metabolic acidosis. Chloride is
another electrolyte involved in maintaining proper fluid balance and pH
balance. It is also part of the stomach’s hydrochloric acid that
digests protein and levels are also influenced by kidney
function. Increases are seen when too much acid is in the system,
in dehydration, and with swelling caused by too much fluid inside the
cells. Decreases are seen in excessive sweating, stomach acid
deficiency and edema.
Creatinine is a waste product of muscle activity and levels are related
to a person’s muscle mass and how much exercise and strenuous activity
they perform. Increases can also be related to inadequate kidney
function. Deceases may be due to lack of muscle mass or
This test measures your blood fats. The lipid profile is a group of
tests that are often ordered together to determine risk of coronary
heart disease. They are tests that have been shown to be good
indicators of whether someone is likely to have a heart attack or
stroke caused by blockage of blood vessels or hardening of the arteries
(atherosclerois). The lipid profile typically includes:
ß Total cholesterol
ß High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) — often called
ß Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) —often called bad
ß Very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C)
Cholesterol is derived from the diet, formed in the liver and found in
all cells of the body. It is used to form hormones, antibodies
and bile salts and also protects cell membranes. It is also used
to evaluate risk for atherosclerosis. HDL cholesterol is called
the “good” cholesterol and LDL is the “bad” fraction that sticks to the
linings of arteries. Increases are seen in atherosclerosis,
hypothyroidism, and stomach problems affecting digestion of fats and in
high fat diets. Decreases are seen some liver disorders,
hyperthyroidism and severely fat restricted diets.
Triglycerides are circulating fats that are made in the liver. Like
glucose, they can be a source of energy and their amount increases when
glucose cannot be used properly. Increases are seen in diabetes,
atherosclerosis, hypothyroid conditions, high fat diet and
alcoholism. Decreases are seen in hyperthyroidism, autoimmune
disorders, vegetarian diet and deficiency of stomach acid.